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TitleThe functional connectome of cognitive reserve
Author(s)Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves
Moreira, Pedro
Magalhães, Ricardo José Silva
Costa, Patrício Soares
Santos, Nadine Correia
Zihl, Josef
Soares, José
Sousa, Nuno
Aged, 80 and over
Brain Mapping
Cognitive Reserve
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Middle Aged
Nerve Net
Neural Pathways
Educational Status
Models, Neurological
Brain reserve
Issue date2016
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
CitationMarques, P., Moreira, P., Magalhães, R., Costa, P., et. al. (2016). The functional connectome of cognitive reserve. Human brain mapping, 37(9), 3310-3322
Abstract(s)Cognitive Reserve (CR) designates the brain's capacity to actively cope with insults through a more efficient use of its resources/networks. It was proposed in order to explain the discrepancies between the observed cognitive ability and the expected capacity for an individual. Typical proxies of CR include education and Intelligence Quotient but none totally account for the variability of CR and no study has shown if the brain's greater efficiency associated with CR can be measured. We used a validated model to estimate CR from the residual variance in memory and general executive functioning, accounting for both brain anatomical (i.e., gray matter and white matter signal abnormalities volume) and demographic variables (i.e., years of formal education and sex). Functional connectivity (FC) networks and topological properties were explored for associations with CR. Demographic characteristics, mainly accounted by years of formal education, were associated with higher FC, clustering, local efficiency and strength in parietal and occipital regions and greater network transitivity. Higher CR was associated with a greater FC, local efficiency and clustering of occipital regions, strength and centrality of the inferior temporal gyrus and higher global efficiency. Altogether, these findings suggest that education may facilitate the brain's ability to form segregated functional groups, reinforcing the view that higher education level triggers more specialized use of neural processing. Additionally, this study demonstrated for the first time that CR is associated with more efficient processing of information in the human brain and reinforces the existence of a fine balance between segregation and integration. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3310-3322, 2016.. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Appears in Collections:ICVS - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais com Referee

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