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TitleEffective efficiency as a tool for sustainable water resources management
Author(s)Haie, Naim
Keller, Andrew A.
Water management
Hydrologic fractions
Water saving
Water reuse
project effective efficiency
basin effective efficiency
sustainable water management
irrigation efficiency
water efficiency
water reuse (recycling)
water quality discount
Issue dateAug-2008
JournalJournal of the American Water Resources Association (jawra)
Abstract(s)The sufficiency and usefulness of Effective Efficiency (EE) as a water resources index is shown through conceptual formulation of a generalized EE and practical applications. Two EE models are proposed: one is based on water quantity and the other on quantity and quality, with the possibility of considering water reuse (recycling) in both. These models were developed for two scales: the first is called Project EE and the second Basin EE. The latter gives the influence of the project on the water resources systems of the basin while the former does not make such connection to the whole basin. Such considerations give proper signals as to the adequacy of any intervention to increase efficiency. A crucial distinction is made between depletion and diversion water savings. Classical Efficiency (CE) models are analyzed and compared with the various EE models. CE results in values that are less than EE because of not considering water reuse and water quality in its calculation. Some authors, pointing to these problems – particularly the first problem – have advocated the use of hydrological “fractions” instead of efficiency concepts. This paper defends the use of a proper efficiency model such as EE and suggests putting an end to the use of the CE indicators. To test the models, they are applied to five cases of irrigation and city water use in the United States and Egypt. The analysis of the results demonstrates all the points mentioned above and the potential of the EE models to adequately describe the water resources efficiency and sustainability at a location.
Publisher version
AccessRestricted access (UMinho)
Appears in Collections:C-TAC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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