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TitleCoding as literacy: case studies at pre-primary and elementary school
Author(s)Monteiro, Ana Francisca
Miranda-Pinto, Maribel
Osório, António José
Araújo, Catarina
Primary school
Case study
Computational thinking
Issue date2021
PublisherInternational Academy of Technology, Education and Development (IATED)
CitationA.F. Monteiro, M. Miranda-Pinto, A.J. Osório, C. Araújo (2021) Coding as literacy: case studies at pre-primary and elementary school, INTED2021 Proceedings, pp. 3458-3464.
Abstract(s)This paper presents two case studies being developed within project “KML II – Laboratory of technologies and learning of programming and robotics for preschool and elementary school”1 [1], [2]. Using a multiple case study approach, KMLII is working with educators and elementary school teachers towards the development of learning activities that integrate computational thinking, coding and robotics with the curriculum, for all students [3] and considering essential learnings [4], competencies and equal opportunities [5]. Participants are experimenting with both unplugged and plugged activities, including coding with ScratchJr and Scratch (only for elementary school). Data is being collected from educators/teachers’ logs and through distant observation. Observation uses the “Positive Technological Development (PTD) Engagement Checklist for Children”, developed by DevTech Research Group at Tufts University, under coordination of Professor Marina Bers (, translated and validated to Portuguese. Project KML was born in the context of a growing concern with the Portuguese education system’s response to the development of computational competences for all students. This concern emerges across different public initiatives led by the Ministry of Education’s technologies team (ERTE-DGE)2 and implemented through its competence centres3 for the integration of ICT in education , as well as partnerships with universities. Despite these, guidelines for the development of pedagogical practices that integrate coding with the curriculum still lack. Against this background, this paper presents in detail the methodological approach implemented for two case studies, at preschool and elementary school respectively. Using a multiple case study approach [6], KML II is working with 11 preschool educators and 17 primary school teachers, in 8 different Portuguese districts. The project delivered, in 2019, a national wide training action for in-service educators and primary school teachers [1], [2]. Participant educators and teachers were selected within the group that completed the training. Results from these case studies will inform the development a framework for the introduction of computational thinking, programming and robotics in the training of undergraduate and in-service educators and elementary school teachers, and the design of a competence profile for education professionals in these areas.
TypeConference paper
Publisher version
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:CIEd - Textos em volumes de atas de encontros científicos nacionais e internacionais

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