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Title: | Superconductivity and magnetism in strongly correlated electronic systems |

Author(s): | Sampaio, Maria José Fontes Alexandre Forjaz |

Advisor(s): | Carmelo, José Manuel Pereira Araújo, M. A. N. |

Issue date: | 11-Sep-2009 |

Abstract(s): | In this thesis, symmetry and related transformation laws under a suitable unitary transformation are used in the study of the superconducting and magnetic properties of strongly correlated electronic systems. Such a study profits from a recently found global SO(3)×SO(3)×U(1) = [SO(4)×U(1)]/Z2 symmetry in the Hubbard model on a bipartite lattice. The introduction of the square-lattice quantum liquid relies on a general description of the Hubbard model consistent with its exact global SO(3) × SO(3) × U(1) symmetry. Such a quantum liquid is expected to play the same role for many-electron problems with short-range interactions on a square lattice, as a Fermi liquid for three-dimensional isotropic metals. It refers to the Hubbard model on the square lattice in the subspace spanned by the ground state, and the excited states generated by application onto it of one- and two-electron operators. For such a square-lattice quantum liquid only the charge c fermions and spin-neutral two-spinon s1 fermions play an active role. Part of the studies of this thesis use an effective superconductivity theory according to which, for zero spin density m = 0 and the range 0 < x < x∗ of finite hole concentrations of a short-range spin ordered phase, the ground state of the square-lattice quantum liquid of c and s1 fermions with residual interactions is superconducting. (For U/4t > ui ≈ 3/4 the critical hole concentration x∗ increases continuously upon increasing the U/4t value from x∗ = 1/√2 ≈ 0.225 at U/4t = ui to x∗ = 1/ ≈ 0.318 for U/4t → ∞.) Superconductivity emerges naturally from the effects of the residual interactions of the c and s1 fermions and as a side product of the short-range spin correlations. The phase of the c fermion pairs reads = 0 + 1 where the fluctuations of the phases 0 and 1 become large for x → 0 and x → x∗, respectively. For 0 < x < x∗ and x = 0, the symmetry of the action for the phase is a global superconducting U(1) symmetry and a local compact gauge symmetry, respectively. The former U(1) symmetry is identified with the U(1) symmetry of the Hubbard-model global SO(3) × SO(3) × U(1) = [SO(4) × U(1)]/Z2 symmetry. The amplitudes g = g0 g1, g0 = |heiθ0i|, and g1 = |heiθ1i|, their zero-temperature values ˘g ≈ (x/x∗)(1−x/x∗), ˘g0 ≈ (x/x∗), and ˘g1 ≈ (1−x/x∗) and the fluctuations of the phase , play an important role in the physics of the square-lattice quantum liquid. Together with the energy scale 2 0, which gives the maximum magnitude of the s1 fermion spinon pairing energy, they fully control the order parameters of both the short-range spin and long-range superconducting correlations. Indeed, for temperatures T < Tc, the short-range spin ordered phase has both a macroscopic quantum phase-coherent pair superconducting order so that |heiθi| > 0, and a short-range spin order, whereas for Tc < T < T∗ only the latter order prevails yet there remain c fermion pairing correlations such that |heiθ1i| > 0 but heiθ0i = 0. Here the critical temperature Tc and the crossover pseudogap temperature T∗ are fully controlled by the absolute value of the order parameters of the two above orders, respectively. However, the square-lattice quantum liquid alone does not describe quantitatively the unusual properties of the hole-doped cuprates. To fulfill such a goal we profit from a suitable theory according to which the interplay of electronic correlations described by the square-lattice quantum liquid of charge c fermions and spin-neutral two-spinon s1 fermions with intrinsic disorder, is behind the unusual properties of the holedoped hight-temperature cuprate superconductors. By profiting from such an interplay, an excellent quantitative agreement with experiments for the physical quantities of several families of hole-doped cuprates is reached. That includes universal properties such as a dome-like critical-temperature hole-concentration dependence and normal-state linear-T resistivity near optimal doping, extending over a wide temperature window. The results confirm a coexisting two-gap scenario associated with an incoherent two-spinon pairing and a coherent twoc- fermion pairing, respectively. While most of our studies focus on the superconducting and magnetic properties of the square-lattice quantum liquid associated with the Hubbard model on the square lattice, the magnetic properties of a related model – the periodic Anderson model – are also addressed, on the cubic lattice. |

Type: | Doctoral thesis |

Description: | Tese de doutoramento em Física |

URI: | http://hdl.handle.net/1822/9891 |

Access: | Restricted access (UMinho) |

Appears in Collections: | CDF - CEP - Teses de Doutoramento/PhD Thesis |