Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1822/8990

TitleAutarquias e educação : lideranças emergentes na política educativa local : estudo de caso no concelho da Golegã
Other titlesLocal councils and education : emergent leaderships regarding the local policy on education : case study - municipality of Golegã
Municipalités et éducation : leaderships émergents ao niveau de la politique éducative locale : étude de cas - commune de Golegã
Author(s)Prata, Maria Manuela de Jesus Faustino
Advisor(s)Fernandes, António Manuel de Sousa
Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena de
KeywordsMunicípio
Educação
Relação autarquia/escolas
Agrupamento de escolas
Políticas educativas locais
Municipality
Education
Relationship local council/schools
Assembly of schools
Local educational policies
Municipalité
Education
Relation municipalité/écoles
Groupement d’écoles
Politiques educatives localles
Issue date2-Mar-2009
Abstract(s)O aumento gradual dos poderes locais em matéria educativa tem vindo a tornar-se uma realidade quer em Portugal quer noutros Países da Europa e do Mundo. No nosso país, o envolvimento crescente dos municípios em matéria educativa decorre tanto da produção normativa, como das dinâmicas desenvolvidas localmente em parceria com escolas e outras entidades/instituições. Embora o quadro legal de referência seja comum a todos os municípios, deparamo-nos com realidades distintas no âmbito e qualidade das respostas, facto que tem despertado a curiosidade e o interesse de diferentes investigadores (Pinhal e Viseu, 2001; Guedes, 2002; Prata, 2002; Taipas, 2003; Evangelista, 2005; Martins et al 2005; Silva, 2006, entre outros). As actuações díspares constituíram o impulso inicial que nos conduziu à realização de uma investigação no ano escolar de 2001/2002, à qual agora damos continuidade, aprofundando e procurando novas linhas de pesquisa. Nesta perspectiva, nos anos de 2003/2004 e 2004/2005 desenvolvemos um Estudo de Caso com fortes características etnográficas num concelho Ribatejano. Durante dois anos recorremos à prática de observação “participante” e à recolha documental, que complementámos com entrevistas semi-directivas aplicadas a diferentes participantes e momentos. Analisámos e triangulámos todos os dados no sentido de objectivar e acrescer de cientificidade a investigação. Tendo inclusivamente como referencial os resultados anteriores, e numa perspectiva evolutiva e diacrónica, na nossa investigação foi-se enraizando a importância do poder local na educação e o papel indispensável do autarca responsável na definição e implementação das políticas educativas locais, importância mais global e mais abrangente que em 2001/2002. Apesar dos obstáculos da nova estrutura organizativa, decorrente da entrada em funcionamento do Agrupamento de Escolas vertical e intermunicipal, há a salientar o processo de aprendizagem colectiva efectuado. Para tal, foi indispensável tornar congruentes as respostas e propostas da autarquia às necessidades do Agrupamento de Escolas. O diálogo e os contactos personalizados entre Conselho Executivo e os autarcas agilizam e humanizam a resposta, assumindo, por isso, demasiada/extrema(o) importância/relevo a nível local. O amadurecimento de técnicos e políticos é muito visível, tanto nas opções e finalidades no que se refere aos novos papéis a desempenhar na Educação e noutras áreas transversais que com ela se relacionam, como nas dinâmicas em desenvolvimento e nos instrumentos criados. O Projecto Educativo Municipal existente atribui um papel decisivo à articulação entre a Política Educativa da autarquia e do Agrupamento de Escolas, ao propor a necessidade de envolvimento das escolas enquanto parceiros fundamentais e indispensáveis para a viabilização da Política Educativa definida pelos autarcas para o concelho. No entanto, é mais abrangente, uma vez que a Educação é entendida como um processo global, onde subjaz a intencionalidade de relacionar e interligar o formal, o informal e o não formal, numa tentativa de transversalidade e de complementaridade cujas características e identidades locais assumem uma importância decisiva. A comunidade assume, claramente, um lugar de destaque no processo educativo/formativo dos cidadãos em geral, assumindo contornos e traços que visivelmente caracterizam o Projecto das Cidades Educadoras. As dinâmicas e lógicas em desenvolvimento no concelho da Golegã evidenciam a importância das pessoas responsáveis pelo Pelouro da Educação, das suas sensibilidades e concepções educativas e, ainda das relações formais e informais que se estabelecem no local, em detrimento dos suportes legislativos de referência. A perspectiva e a prática do município principalmente como recurso financeiro e actor “externo” do Agrupamento de Escolas ainda se verificam. No entanto, nota-se uma evolução positiva, um conhecimento e aceitação diferentes do actor autárquico. Parece verificar-se uma mudança de consciências impulsionada pelo aumento de competências conferidas aos municípios pelo poder central na área da educação e noutras complementares, mas sobretudo pela acção local que precedeu em vários âmbitos os normativos entretanto produzidos. Contrariando a concepção restritiva, limitada e desvalorizada do papel do município na Educação pública, estamos perante um município que assume um posição cada vez mais significativo na definição, promoção e coordenação de Políticas Educativas locais. As dinâmicas e as lógicas em presença no concelho da Golegã caminham no sentido de um paradigma renovado e congruente com os desafios que se colocam à Educação num contexto cada vez mais globalizado e caracterizado pelo destaque crescente dos poderes locais na Educação.
The gradual increase in terms of the participation of local councils in education is slowly becoming a reality not only in Portugal but also in other countries of Europe and elsewhere in the World. In our country the growing involvement of municipal councils in education matters can be seen as both the result of normative production and a series of dynamics carried out locally in partnership with schools and other organizations/institutions. Although the legal frame of reference is common to all municipal councils, in practice there are different realities both in the scope and quality of the responses given – a fact that has aroused the curiosity and the interest of several scholars in this field (Pinhal and Viseu, 2001; Guedes, 2002; Prata, 2002; Taipas, 2003; Evangelista, 2005; Martins et al., 2005; Silva, 2006, among others). The differences in terms of performance that we were able to observe gave us the impulse we needed to conduct a deeper analysis, which we did during the school year of 2001/2002. We have now resumed this research, going even deeper into the subject and looking for new lines of investigation. With that in mind we conducted a case study, during the years of 2003/2004 and 2004/2005, characterized by noticeable ethnographic features in a city council located in Ribatejo. For two years we based our work on “participant” observation and data collection, which we supplemented with semi-directive interviews carried out at different times and with different participants. We have then analysed and triangulated the data in order to make our investigation more objective and scientific. Considering our previous conclusions as point of reference and from an evolutionary and diachronic perspective, the further we went in our research the more clearly we could see how important local powers are in education and how essential is the role played by the Mayor and the Local Council in both the definition and implementation of the local educational policies. In addition, we were able to confirm that this importance is now even greater, broader and more global than it was in 2001/2002. In spite of the obstacles of the new organisational structure, due to the putting into effect of the inter-municipal and vertical Assembly of Schools, it is important to point out the process of collective learning that was conducted. In order for this to happen it was of the utmost importance to make the solutions and proposals presented by the local council congruent with the needs of the Assembly of Schools. The dialogue and the personal contacts between the Executive Councils of the Schools and the “Mayors” humanize and speed the answer up and therefore are absolutely and extremely relevant in a local context. The maturity technicians and politicians have shown towards this question is quite noticeable not only in the options and purposes regarding the new roles that are to be played in Education and in other transverse areas related to it, but also in the dynamics that are being developed and in the tools created. In the Municipal Educational Project in force a major and decisive role is given to the joint effort between the Educational Policy of both the local council and the Assembly of Schools, through the suggestion that schools must get involved as core and indispensable partners in order to make the Educational Policy the Local Council has defined for its municipality viable. However, this Project goes even further since Education is understood as a global process in which there is a latent intention of relating and intertwining the formal, informal and non-formal in an attempt to assure that everything is done in a transversal and complementary way, whose characteristics and local identities assume a decisive importance. The community has clearly a prominent role in the educative/formative process of citizens in general thus assuming contours and features that visibly characterize the Project of the Educator Cities. The dynamics and logics that are being developed in the municipality of Golegã show how important those responsible for the Education Department are, with their sensitivities and educational conceptions, and how relevant are the formal and informal relationships that are established in the field – both of them being more important than the legislative frame of reference. At this point we must say that despite all we have been mentioning the municipality is still seen mainly as a financial resource and “external” agent of the Assembly of Schools. However, there is a positive evolution: a different knowledge and acceptance of the role played by the Local Council. The awareness of the importance of this relationship seems to be increasing following a series of measures taken by the Central Government which granted Local Councils broader competences in the Education sector and other related areas. But more important than this was the so-called local action, which, in the meantime, preceded in various domains the laws promulgated by the Government. In direct contradiction to the limited, restricted and undervalued conception of the municipality’s role in public Education, we are now before a municipality that is gradually assuming a more and more significant position in the definition, promotion and coordination of local Educational Policies. The dynamics and logics in place in the municipality of Golegã are evolving towards a renewed paradigm, more congruent with the challenges the Education sector faces in a context which is becoming broader and broader and which is characterized by the growing relevance of local powers in Education.
L’élargissement progressif des pouvoirs municipaux en ce qui concerne l’éducation est devenu une réalité non seulement au Portugal mais encore dans plusieurs pays de l’Europe et du Monde. Dans notre pays la participation croissante des municipalités en matière éducative découle tant de la production normative, tant de toutes les dynamiques développées localement conjointement avec des écoles et d’autres organisations/institutions. Bien que le cadre légal de référence soit commun à toutes les municipalités, il y a plusieurs réalités différentes en ce qui concerne le domaine et la qualité des réponses – un fait qui a éveillé la curiosité et l’intérêt de nombreux investigateurs (Pinhal et Viseu, 2001; Guedes, 2002; Prata, 2002; Taipas, 2003; Evangelista, 2005; Martins et al., 2005; Silva, 2006, entre autres). Las différences que nous avons constaté entre les manières d’agir ont été l’impulsion initiale que nous a mené à la réalisation d’une investigation pendant l’année scolaire de 2001/2002, laquelle nous avons décidé de continuer, en approfondant notre étude et en cherchant des nouvelles lignes de recherche. Dans cette perspective, pendant les années scolaires de 2003/2004 et 2004/2005, nous avons fait un Etude de Cas avec fortes caractéristiques au niveau de l’ethnographie dans une commune du Ribatejo. Pendant deux ans nous avons adopté les pratiques d’observation “participante” et de recueil de documents, auxquelles nous avons ajouté une série d’entrevues semi-directives faites avec plusieurs participants et en plusieurs moments. Nous avons analysé et triangulé les donnés obtenues pour rendre notre investigation plus objective et scientifique. Sur la base de nos résultats antérieurs, et dans une perspective évolutive et diachronique, nous nous sommes aperçus au cours de notre investigation que le pouvoir local est d’une importance capitale pour l’éducation et aussi que les Conseillers d’éducation jouent un rôle fondamental dans la définition et implémentation des politiques éducatives locales. D’autre part, nous avons pu constaté que cette importance est encore plus globale et plus compréhensive qu’en 2001/2002. Malgré les obstacles posés par la nouvelle structure organisationnelle, qui a été le résultat de l’entrée en fonctionnement du Groupement d’Ecoles vertical et intermunicipal, il faut remarquer le processus d’apprentissage effectué et pour lequel fut indispensable adapter las réponses et propositions de la municipalité aux nécessités du Groupement d’Ecoles. Le dialogue et les contacts personnalisés entre le Conseil Exécutif et les Conseillers et le Maire humanisent et rendent la réponse plus agile, en assumant donc une importance qu’on peut pas ignorer et une influence extrême au niveau local. La maturité des techniciens et politiciens est en fait très visible, tant en ce qui concerne les options et finalités des nouveaux rôles qu’ils doivent jouer dans l’Education et dans autres secteurs transversaux qui sont en rapport avec elle, tant en ce qui concerne les dynamiques en développement et les instruments crées. Le Projet Educatif Municipal existant attribue un rôle décisif à l’articulation entre la Politique Educative de la municipalité et celle du Groupement d’Ecoles, en proposant la nécessité de rendre les écoles participantes actives et, donc, partenaires cruciaux pour la viabilité de la Politique Educative définie par le Maire et ses Conseillers pour la commune. Cependant, ce Projet est encore plus compréhensif, vu que l’Education est entendue comme un processus global avec une intentionnalité latente de mettre en rapport et d’inter-relier le formel, l’informel et le non-formel dans une tentative d’aboutir à une pluridisciplinarité et à une complémentarité dont les caractéristiques et identités locales ont une importance décisive. La communauté a clairement une haute place dans le processus éducatif/formatif des citoyens en général, en assumant contours et traits qui caractérisent visiblement le Projet dês Cités Educatrices. Les dynamiques et logiques qui sont en marche maintenant dans la commune de Golegã mettent en évidence l’importance des gens responsables du Conseil de l’Education, avec ses sensibilités et conceptions éducatives, et aussi des relations formelles et informelles qui s’établissent dans l’endroit, au détriment des supports législatifs de référence. La perspective et la pratique de la municipalité, surtout comme ressource financière et actrice “externe” du Groupement d’Ecoles, sont encore une réalité. Cependant, on peut constater qu’il y a une évolution positive, une connaissance et une acceptation différentes du rôle joué par la municipalité. Il semble qu’il y a un changement de consciences impulsé par l’augmentation des compétences conférées aux responsables de chaque municipalité par le pouvoir central en ce qui concerne l’éducation et tous les autres secteurs qui sont en rapport avec elle. Cependant, on peut pas oublier le rôle joué par l’action locale, qui a précédé dans plusieurs domaines les normes produites entre-temps, et laquelle a été cruciale pour ce changement de consciences. Contrairement à la conception restrictive, limitée et dévalorisée du rôle de la municipalité dans l’Education publique, ce qu’on a devant nos yeux maintenant est une municipalité qui est en train d’assumer une position de plus en plus significative dans la définition, promotion et coordenation des Politiques Educatives localles. Les dynamiques et logiques en présence dans la commune de Golegã marchent vers un paradigme rénové et congruent aux défis qui se posent à l’Education dans un contexte de plus en plus globalisé et caractérisé par l’importance croissante des pouvoirs locaux dans l’Education.
TypeDoctoral thesis
DescriptionTese de doutoramento em Estudos da Criança (ramo de conhecimento em Organização da Educação Básica)
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/1822/8990
AccessRestricted access (UMinho)
Appears in Collections:BUM - Teses de Doutoramento

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