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|Title:||Antimicrobial mechanisms of ortho-phthalaldehyde action|
Simões, Lúcia C.
Pereira, Maria Olívia
Vieira, M. J.
Mechanisms of action
|Journal:||Journal of Basic Microbiology|
|Citation:||"Journal of basic microbiology". ISSN 0233-111X. 47:3 (June 2007) 230-242.|
|Abstract(s):||Biocides generally have multiple biochemical targets. Such a feature easily entangles the analysis of the mechanisms of antimicrobial action. In this study, the action of the dialdehyde biocide ortho-phtalaldehyde (OPA), on bacteria, was investigated using the Gram-negative Pseudomonas fluorescens. The targets of the biocide action were studied using different bacterial physiological indices. The respiratory activity, membrane permeabilization, physico-chemical characterization of the bacterial surfaces, outer membrane proteins (OMP) expression, concomitant influence of pH, contact time and presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on respiratory activity, morphological changes and OPA-DNA interactions were assessed for different OPA concentrations. With the process conditions used, the minimum inhibitory concentration was 1500 mg/l, the concentration to promote total loss of bacterial culturability was 65 mg/l and the concentration needed to inactivate respiratory activity was 80 mg/l. These data are evidence that culturability and respiratory activity were markedly affected by the biocide. OPA lead, moreover, to a significant change in cell surface hydrophobicity and induced propidium iodide uptake. Such results suggest cytoplasmic membrane damage, although no release of ATP was detected. At pH 5, the bactericidal action of OPA was stronger, though not influenced by BSA presence. Nevertheless, at pH 9, BSA noticeably (p < 0.05) impaired biocide action. A time- dependent effect in OPA action was evident when contemplating respiratory activity variation, mainly for the lower exposure times. Scanning electron microscopy allowed to detect bacterial morphological changes, translated on cellular elongation, for OPA concentrations higher than 100 mg/l. Interferences at DNA level were, however, restricted to extreme biocide concentrations. The overall bactericidal events occurred without detectable OMP expression changes. In conclusion, the results indicated a sequence of events responsible for the antimicrobial action of OPA: it binds to membrane receptors due to cross-linkage; impairs the membrane functions allowing the biocide to enter through the permeabilized membrane; it interacts with intracellular reactive molecules, such as RNA, compromising the growth cycle of the cells and, at last, with DNA.|
|Appears in Collections:||CEB - Publicações em Revistas/Séries Internacionais / Publications in International Journals/Series|