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|Title:||Multiscale multifactorial approaches for engineering tendon substitutes|
|Author(s):||Gonçalves, Ana I.|
Rodrigues, Márcia T.
Matos, Ana M.
Domingues, Rui Miguel Andrade
Gomes, Manuela E.
|Citation:||Gonçalves A. I., Rodrigues M. T., Matos A. M., Almeida H., Gómez-Florit M., Domingues R. M. A., Gomes M. E. Multiscale Multifactorial Approaches for Engineering Tendon Substitutes, Organ Tissue Engineering. Reference Series in Biomedical Engineering, pp. 1-24, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-18512-1_8-1, 2020|
|Abstract(s):||The physiology of tendons and the continuous strains experienced daily make tendons very prone to injury. Excessive and prolonged loading forces and aging also contribute to the onset and progression of tendon injuries, and conventional treatments have limited efficacy in restoring tendon biomechanics. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) approaches hold the promise to provide therapeutic solutions for injured or damaged tendons despite the challenging cues of tendon niche and the lack of tendon-specific factors to guide cellular responses and tackle regeneration. The roots of engineering tendon substitutes lay in multifactorial approaches from adequate stem cells sources and environmental stimuli to the construction of multiscale 3D scaffolding systems. To achieve such advanced tendon substitutes, incremental strategies have been pursued to more closely recreate the native tendon requirements providing structural as well as physical and chemical cues combined with biochemical and mechanical stimuli to instruct cell behavior in 3D architectures, pursuing mechanically competent constructs with adequate maturation before implantation.|
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