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TitleCombined carbon and energy intensity benchmarks for sustainable retail stores
Author(s)Ferreira, A.
Pinheiro, M. D.
Brito, J.
Mateus, Ricardo
KeywordsEnergy consumption
Food and non-food retailers
Sustainability Benchmarks
Issue dateOct-2018
CitationFerreira A., Pinheiro M. D., Brito J., Mateus R. Combined carbon and energy intensity benchmarks for sustainable retail stores, Energy, Vol. 165, Part B, pp. 877-889, doi:10.1016/, 2018
Abstract(s)Retail stores are amongst the building typologies with the highest carbon (CI) and energy intensities (EI). However, previous studies have only explored the EI of food and non-food retailers. This study is the first of its kind to examine the link between CI and EI. Establishing the nature of this link will allow a deeper understanding of how to decarbonize the retail sector. Here, we hypothesised whether in retail low EI correlated with low CI and how corporate revenue affected these variables. ?Best practice? and ?conventional practice? benchmarks were then developed to assess retail buildings' sustainability. These represent missing and highly desirable tools in retail sustainable management. Average EI and CI of food retailers were twice that of non-food retailers (EI-548 vs 238?kWh/m2/y; CI266 vs 132?kg CO?eq/m2/y). The correlation found between EI and CI indicates that low energy consumption leads to low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CI variability resulted mostly of energy-efficiency strategies, of the energy production process and of GHG emissions from refrigeration systems. EI variability resulted mostly from store typology, volume and usage. The proposed benchmarks help to set energy and carbon reference performance levels in retail buildings and to stimulate best sustainable practice amongst retailers.
Publisher version
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:C-TAC - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais

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