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TitleEffect of alginate molecular weight and M/G ratio in beads properties foreseeing the protection of probiotics
Author(s)Ramos, Philippe Emmanuel Cruz
Silva, Pedro Miguel Peixoto
Alario, Marta M.
Pastrana, Lorenzo M.
Teixeira, J. A.
Cerqueira, Miguel Ângelo Parente Ribeiro
Vicente, A. A.
ß-d-mannuronic acid
a-l-guluronic acid
β-D-mannuronic acid
Issue dateApr-2018
JournalFood Hydrocolloids
CitationRamos, Philippe E.; Silva, Pedro; Alario, Marta M.; Pastrana, Lorenzo M.; Teixeira, José A.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Vicente, António A., Effect of alginate molecular weight and M/G ratio in beads properties foreseeing the protection of probiotics. Food Hydrocolloids, 77, 8-16, 2018
Abstract(s)Probiotics are live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. However, to accomplish this positive influence on Human health, probiotics should survive to the passage through the upper digestive tract in large numbers to unsure a desired beneficial effect in the host. Several encapsulation methods have been used to protect probiotics. Alginate is the most used biopolymer in the production of these systems, although its performance is totally dependent of its structure and chemical characteristics. In this work, alginates with different molecular weights and different mannuronic and guluronic acid residues ratio (M/G ratio) were used in the encapsulation of Lactococcus lactis spp. cremoris (LLC) aiming the protection of this probiotic bacteria against the harsh conditions of digestion. Alginate-based beads were produced using an external gelation process (extrusion technique) where variables regarding the processing conditions and alginate chemical characteristics were studied to assess their relevance in this process aiming the most efficient encapsulation system. The most important variables influencing the size of alginate beads were the alginate concentration, alginate type (M/G ratio and molecular weight) and the nozzle diameter. Beads with sizes ranged between 1.9 and 3.0 mm were produced using different alginates. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed relevant differences between beads produced proving the impact of different M/G ratios in the beads chemical structure. In general, low molecular weight and low M/G ratio alginate (Protanal LFR5/60) proved to produce the most well organized (according to SEM analyses), less permeable (pore diameter of 2.52 nm) and stronger alginate beads, moreover molecular weight and M/G ratio proved to be an important variable on the protection of probiotics against the harsh conditions of digestion. Produced beads proved to be efficient in the protection of probiotics (i.e. high viability), with the best performance presented by the medium and low molecular weight alginates.
Description"Available online 1 December 2017"
Publisher version
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:CEB - Publicações em Revistas/Séries Internacionais / Publications in International Journals/Series

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