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dc.contributor.authorSilva, Marinapor
dc.contributor.authorOliveira, Marisapor
dc.contributor.authorVieira, Danielpor
dc.contributor.authorBrandão, Andreiapor
dc.contributor.authorRito, Teresa Spor
dc.contributor.authorPereira, Joana B.por
dc.contributor.authorFraser, Ross M.por
dc.contributor.authorHudson, Bobpor
dc.contributor.authorGandini, Francescapor
dc.contributor.authorEdwards, Ceiridwenpor
dc.contributor.authorPala, Maria-
dc.contributor.authorKoch, John-
dc.contributor.authorWilson, James F.-
dc.contributor.authorPereira, Luísa-
dc.contributor.authorRichards, Martin B.-
dc.contributor.authorSoares, Pedro-
dc.identifier.citationSilva, M., Oliveira, M., Vieira, D., et. al. (2017). A genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersals. BMC evolutionary biology, 17(1), 88por
dc.description.abstractBackground: India is a patchwork of tribal and non-tribal populations that speak many different languages from various language families. Indo-European, spoken across northern and central India, and also in Pakistan and Bangladesh, has been frequently connected to the so-called "Indo-Aryan invasions" from Central Asia similar to 3.5 ka and the establishment of the caste system, but the extent of immigration at this time remains extremely controversial. South India, on the other hand, is dominated by Dravidian languages. India displays a high level of endogamy due to its strict social boundaries, and high genetic drift as a result of long-term isolation which, together with a very complex history, makes the genetic study of Indian populations challenging. Results: We have combined a detailed, high-resolution mitogenome analysis with summaries of autosomal data and Y-chromosome lineages to establish a settlement chronology for the Indian Subcontinent. Maternal lineages document the earliest settlement similar to 55-65 ka (thousand years ago), and major population shifts in the later Pleistocene that explain previous dating discrepancies and neutrality violation. Whilst current genome-wide analyses conflate all dispersals from Southwest and Central Asia, we were able to tease out from the mitogenome data distinct dispersal episodes dating from between the Last Glacial Maximum to the Bronze Age. Moreover, we found an extremely marked sex bias by comparing the different genetic systems. Conclusions: Maternal lineages primarily reflect earlier, pre-Holocene processes, and paternal lineages predominantly episodes within the last 10 ka. In particular, genetic influx from Central Asia in the Bronze Age was strongly male-driven, consistent with the patriarchal, patrilocal and patrilineal social structure attributed to the inferred pastoralist early Indo-European society. This was part of a much wider process of Indo-European expansion, with an ultimate source in the Pontic-Caspian region, which carried closely related Y-chromosome lineages, a smaller fraction of autosomal genome-wide variation and an even smaller fraction of mitogenomes across a vast swathe of Eurasia between 5 and 3.5 ka.por
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by FEDER funds through COMPETE (FCOMP-01-0124FEDER-029291) and COMPETE 2020 (Project number 016899) and by national funds through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) through the research projects PTDC/IVC-ANT/4917/2012 and PTDC/EPH-ARQ/4164/2014. MS is supported by a Leverhulme Doctoral Scholarship awarded to MBR.AB, MO and TR are supported by FCT grants (SFRH/BD/78990/2011, SFRH/BD/95626/2013 and SFRH/BPD/108126/2015). PS is supported by FCT, ESF, POPH and the FCT Investigator Programme (IF/01641/2013) and acknowledges FCT I. P. and ERDF (through COMPETE2020-POCI) for CBMA's strategic programme UID/BIA/04050/2013 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007569). I3S is financed by FEDER funds through the COMPETE 2020-POCI, Portugal 2020, and by Portuguese funds through FCT/Ministerio da Ciencia, Tecnologia e Inovacao in the framework of the project "Institute for Research and Innovation in Health Sciences" (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007274).por
dc.publisherBioMed Centralpor
dc.subjectMitochondrial DNApor
dc.subjectIndian Subcontinentpor
dc.subjectY chromosomepor
dc.titleA genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersalspor
dc.subject.fosCiências Agrárias::Ciências Veterináriaspor
dc.subject.wosScience & Technologypor
sdum.journalBMC Evolutionary Biologypor
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ICVS - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais com Referee

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