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TitleUrothelial bladder cancer progression: lessons learned from the bench
Author(s)Baltazar, Fátima
Afonso, Julieta Alexandra Pereira
Longatto Filho, Adhemar
Reis, R. M.
Lymphovascular invasion
Mammalian target of rapamycin
Monocarboxylate transporters
Raf kinase inhibitor protein
Scoring system
Urothelial bladder cancer
Issue date18-Dec-2014
PublisherOAE Publishing Inc. (OAE)
JournalJournal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment
Abstract(s)Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is an intricate malignancy with a variable natural history and clinical behavior. Despite developments in diagnosis/prognosis refinement and treatment modalities, the recurrence rate is high, and progression from non-muscle to muscle invasive UBC commonly leads to metastasis. Moreover, patients with muscle-invasive or extra-vesical disease often fail the standard chemotherapy treatment, and overall survival rates are poor. Thus, UBC remains a challenge in the oncology field, representing an ideal candidate for research on biomarkers that could identify patients at increased risk of recurrence, progression, and chemo-refractoriness. However, progress toward personalized medicine has been hampered by the unique genetic complexity of UBC. Recent genome-wide expression and sequencing studies have brought new insights into its molecular features, pathogenesis and clinical diversity, revealing a landscape where classical pathology is intersected by the novel and heterogeneous molecular groups. Hence, it seems plausible to postulate that only an integrated signature of prognostic/predictive biomarkers inherent in different cancer hallmarks will reach clinical validation. In this review, we have summarized ours and others' research into novel putative biomarkers of progression and chemoresistance that encompass several hallmarks of cancer: tumor neovascularization, invasion and metastasis, and energy metabolism reprogramming of the tumor microenvironment.
Publisher version;year=2015;volume=1;issue=2;spage=57;epage=66;aulast=Afonso
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:ICVS - Artigos em Revistas Internacionais com Referee

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