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TitleEffect of the acoustic impedance in ultrasonic emitter transducers using digital modulations
Author(s)Martins, M. S.
Cabral, J.
Lanceros-Méndez, S.
Rocha, G.
KeywordsUnderwater Acoustic Channel
Underwater Wireless Communication
Transducer Optimization
Piezoelectric Ultrasound Emitter Transducers
Digital Modulations
Issue date2015
JournalOcean Engineering
CitationMartins, M. S., Cabral, J., Lanceros-Mendez, S., & Rocha, G. (2015). Effect of the acoustic impedance in ultrasonic emitter transducers using digital modulations. Ocean Engineering, 100, 107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.04.001
Abstract(s)In an underwater environment it is difficult to implement solutions for wireless communications. The existing technologies using electromagnetic waves or lasers are not very efficient due to the large attenuation in the aquatic environment. Ultrasound reveals a lower attenuation, and thus has been used in underwater long-distance communications. The much slower speed of acoustic propagation in water (about 1500 m/s) compared with that of electromagnetic and optical waves, is another limiting factor for efficient communication and networking. For high data-rates and real-time applications it is necessary to use frequencies in the MHz range, allowing communication distances of hundreds of meters with a delay of milliseconds. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop ultrasound transducers able to work at high frequencies and wideband, with suitable responses to digital modulations. This work shows how the acoustic impedance influences the performance of an ultrasonic emitter transducer when digital modulations are used and operating at frequencies between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The study includes a Finite Element Method (FEM) and a MATLAB/Simulink simulation with an experimental validation to evaluate two types of piezoelectric materials: one based on ceramics (high acoustic impedance) with a resonance design and the other based in polymer (low acoustic impedance) designed to optimize the performance when digital modulations are used. The transducers performance for Binary Amplitude Shift Keying (BASK), On-Off Keying (OOK), Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Binary Frequency Shift Keying (BFSK) modulations with a 1 MHz carrier at 125 kbps baud rate are compared.
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:CAlg - Artigos em revistas internacionais/Papers in international journals
CDF - FCD - Artigos/Papers (with refereeing)

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