Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1822/27321

TitleDevelopment of piezoresistive sensors for biomedical applications
Author(s)Correia, Vítor Manuel Gomes
Advisor(s)Rocha, J. G.
Lanceros-Méndez, S.
Issue date11-Sep-2013
Abstract(s)In the last decades there has been an increase in sensing systems applied in a variety of situations with a large variety of sensor ranges. This represents a growing area with high potential. One of the areas of sensor development that require a great deal of attention is the area of sensor for biomedical applications and biosensors. These sensors have to overcome a number of challenges and limitations inherent to the environment where they are introduced. These difficulties lead to the necessity of using new materials and new techniques for their construction together with the more traditional materials, e.g. silicon based, which have already proven their potential in this area. Among the various materials, polymers have proven to be a good choice, due to a set of advantages such as simple processing, flexibility and facility of being obtained in different shapes. Therefore it is interesting to fabricate polymer based piezoresistive sensors for functional coatings of implantable hip prosthesis. These sensors will allow coating the prosthesis and provide new functionalities to the implants such as the possibility to measure forces and deformations between the prosthesis and the bone and therefore improving the postoperative diagnostic. In this works, a model of hip prosthesis with coated sensors was developed. For this purpose, flexible piezoresistive sensors have been developed that allow being implanted. Strain sensors were fabricated based on thin films of n+-nc-si.H by the technique of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at a temperature of 150 ºC on a polymeric substrate, using the lithographic technique to construct the various layers of the sensors. The sensor has a gauge factor of -28 for low frequency deformation cycles. In the last decades there has been an increase in sensing systems applied in a variety of situations with a large variety of sensor ranges. This represents a growing area with high potential. One of the areas of sensor development that require a great deal of attention is the area of sensor for biomedical applications and biosensors. These sensors have to overcome a number of challenges and limitations inherent to the environment where they are introduced. These difficulties lead to the necessity of using new materials and new techniques for their construction together with the more traditional materials, e.g. silicon based, which have already proven their potential in this area. Among the various materials, polymers have proven to be a good choice, due to a set of advantages such as simple processing, flexibility and facility of being obtained in different shapes. Therefore it is interesting to fabricate polymer based piezoresistive sensors for functional coatings of implantable hip prosthesis. These sensors will allow coating the prosthesis and provide new functionalities to the implants such as the possibility to measure forces and deformations between the prosthesis and the bone and therefore improving the postoperative diagnostic. In this works, a model of hip prosthesis with coated sensors was developed. For this purpose, flexible piezoresistive sensors have been developed that allow being implanted. Strain sensors were fabricated based on thin films of n+-nc-si.H by the technique of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at a temperature of 150 ºC on a polymeric substrate, using the lithographic technique to construct the various layers of the sensors. The sensor has a gauge factor of -28 for low frequency deformation cycles.In the last decades there has been an increase in sensing systems applied in a variety of situations with a large variety of sensor ranges. This represents a growing area with high potential. One of the areas of sensor development that require a great deal of attention is the area of sensor for biomedical applications and biosensors. These sensors have to overcome a number of challenges and limitations inherent to the environment where they are introduced. These difficulties lead to the necessity of using new materials and new techniques for their construction together with the more traditional materials, e.g. silicon based, which have already proven their potential in this area. Among the various materials, polymers have proven to be a good choice, due to a set of advantages such as simple processing, flexibility and facility of being obtained in different shapes. Therefore it is interesting to fabricate polymer based piezoresistive sensors for functional coatings of implantable hip prosthesis. These sensors will allow coating the prosthesis and provide new functionalities to the implants such as the possibility to measure forces and deformations between the prosthesis and the bone and therefore improving the postoperative diagnostic. In this works, a model of hip prosthesis with coated sensors was developed. For this purpose, flexible piezoresistive sensors have been developed that allow being implanted. Strain sensors were fabricated based on thin films of n+-nc-si.H by the technique of hot-wire chemical vapor deposition at a temperature of 150 ºC on a polymeric substrate, using the lithographic technique to construct the various layers of the sensors. The sensor has a gauge factor of -28 for low frequency deformation cycles. Sensors with larger flexibility were also developed though inkjet printing technique. Various configurations and materials were used to evaluate which materials are most appropriate for these types of sensors. Sensors with a gauge factor of approximately 2.5 for an active layer of PeDOT were obtained. A sensor matrix of 4 x 5 sensors was fabricated with an active area of 1.8 x 1.5 mm2 per sensor. These sensors were subjected to a set of electromechanical tests to evaluate its performance in situations close to end use. So the prosthesis was coated with the various sensors, cemented and subjected to deformation cycles for three levels of force according to standard ISO7206. An adaptive system read-out electronic circuit was developed and built that allows reading piezoresistive sensors with different characteristics. This system allows measuring a matrix of 8x8 sensors, but can be scaled to a large number of sensors. The readable range of the system is between 50 Ω and 100 kΩ according to the needs of the sensors being implanted. The total area of the circuit is 135 mm2, according to the requirements of a circuit to be used in in-vivo applications. An energy management system was also implemented that allows to activate and deactivate parts of the circuit when they are not needed, reducing the energy consumption. The system was validated by measuring a matrix of sensors with different characteristics. Finally, simulations were performed in order to evaluate the best options for the development of a wireless communications system. Three possible operation frequency ranges were used for three types of standard antennas. The communication system was introduced into a model simulating the characteristics of the various layers that constitute the human body. These simulations allow evaluate the frequency range most appropriate for implantable devices, the most appropriate antenna and the best location within the body. So the frequency chosen for the implementation was 868 Mhz for a Inverted- F antenna (IFA). In conclusion, the key elements for the implementations of an instrumented hip prosthesis were development and validated. The developed and/or simulated elements, including sensors, circuits for reading and communication system can also be used in other applications due to characteristics.
These simulations allow evaluate the frequency range most appropriate for implantable devices, the most appropriate antenna and the best location within the body. So the frequency chosen for the implementation was 868 Mhz for a Inverted- F antenna (IFA). In conclusion, the key elements for the implementations of an instrumented hip prosthesis were development and validated. The developed and/or simulated elements, including sensors, circuits for reading and communication system can also be used in other applications due to characteristics. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um modelo de prótese de anca com implementação de sensores. Para atingir esse objectivo, foram desenvolvidos sensores piezoresitivos flexíveis que permitam ser implantados. Assim foram fabricados sensores de deformação baseados em filmes finos de n+-nc-si.H pela técnica de hot-wire chemical vapor deposition a uma temperatura de 150ºC sobre um substrato polimérico. Recorreu-se a técnica de litografia para construir as várias camadas do sensor. Os sensores apresentam um gauge factor de -28, para ciclos de baixa frequência em testes de four-point-bending. Foram ainda desenvolvidos sensores com uma maior flexibilidade através da técnica de inkjet printing. Para esse desenvolvimento foram usadas várias configurações e materiais, para avaliar quais os materiais mais adequados para este tipo de sensores. Na caracterização destes sensores obteve-se um gauge factor de aproximadamente 2.5 para uma camada ativa de PeDOT. Com os melhores sensores obtidos foram construídas matrizes de 4 x 5 sensores que apresentam uma área ativa de 1.8 x 1.5mm2 por sensor. Estes sensores foram sujeitos a um conjunto de ensaios electromecânicos, para avaliar o seu desempenho em situações próximas da utilização final. Desta forma foi revestida uma prótese com os diferentes sensores, cimentada e sujeita a ciclos de deformação para três níveis de força, segundo a norma ISO7206. Foi desenvolvido e construído um sistema de leitura adaptável que permite medir sensores piezoresistivos com diferentes características entre eles. Este sistema permite medir uma matriz de 8x8 sensores, mas pode ser escalada para um número maior de sensores. A gama de leitura do sistema varia entre 50 Ω e 100 kΩ, de acordo com as necessidades dos sensores a serem implementados. A área total deste circuito é de 135 mm2, de acordo com as necessidades de um circuito a ser utilizado em aplicações in-vivo. Foi também implementado um sistema de gestão de energia que permite ativar e desativar partes do circuito quando estas não são necessárias, permitindo, desta forma, reduzir os consumos de energia. O sistema foi validado através da medição de uma matriz de sensores com diferentes características. foram realizadas simulações de forma a avaliar as melhores opções para o desenvolvimento do sistema de comunicação sem fios. Foram usadas três possíveis gamas de frequência de operação para três tipos de antenas standard. O sistema de comunicação foi introduzido num modelo simulando as características das várias camadas que constituem o corpo humano. Estas simulações permitem aferir a gama de frequências mais adequadas para os dispositivos implantáveis, a antena mais adequada e a sua melhor localização, pois foi verificado como as várias camadas que constituem o corpo humano influenciam a comunicação. Assim, a frequência escolhida para a implementação foi de 868 MHz e a antena foi a IFA. Em conclusão, os elementos principais para a implementação de uma prótese de anca instrumentada, foram desenvolvidos e validados. Os elementos desenvolvidos e/ou simulados, incluindo os sensores, circuitos de leitura e sistema de comunicação, poderão igualmente ser utilizados em outras aplicações devido às suas boas características.
TypeDoctoral thesis
DescriptionTese de doutoramento em Engenharia Electrónica Industrial e de Computadores
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/1822/27321
AccessOpen access
Appears in Collections:BUM - Teses de Doutoramento
DEI - Teses de doutoramento

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