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|Title:||Surface interactions and deposit growth in fouling of heat exchangers|
Melo, L. F.
Pinheiro, Maria Manuela
Vieira, M. J.
|Publisher:||Walter de Gruyter GmbH|
|Abstract(s):||Fouling of heat exchangers is a costly problem in industJ)'. There is a need for a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the build up of deposits on surfaces. The paper reviews the basic mechanisms of fouling, emphasizing their rdle in determining the overall fouling rate. Mass transfer, adhesion, chemical or biological reactions can be the rate limiting processes depending on the design and operating conditions of the heat exchanger. Reference is made to the most common types of fouling, particularly in water systems, and to their interaction with corrosion of metallic surfaces. Special attention is devoted to adhesion, since the formation of fouling layers is primarily a surface process. The main forces of adhesion and the methods fa predicting adhesion tendencies are reviewed. The paper presents and discusses data obtained in laboratory studies on fouling caused by inorganic particles, by microorganisms, and also by both of these types of foulants acting simultaneously. Synergistic phenomena (positive and negative) seem to occur when two oc more types of foulants are present in the fluid, but the final result is still unpredictable. Data on the effects of fluid velocity, temperature and surface material are also presented and discussed.|
|Appears in Collections:||CEB - Publicações em Revistas/Séries Internacionais / Publications in International Journals/Series|