Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:

TitleDifferences between tight and loose cultures : a 33-nation study
Author(s)Gelfand, Michele J.
Raver, Jana L.
Nishii, Lisa
Leslie, Lisa M.
Lun, Janetta
Lim, Beng Chong
Duan, Lili
Almaliach, Assaf
Ang, Soon
Arnadottir, Jakobina
Aycan, Zeynep
Boehnke, Klaus
Boski, Pawel
Cabecinhas, Rosa
Chan, Darius
Chhokar, Jagdeep
D’Amato, Alessia
Ferrer, Montse
Fischlmayr, Iris C.
Fischer, Ronald
Fulop, Marta
Georgas, James
Kashima, Emiko S.
Kashima, Yoshishima
Kim, Kibum
Lempereur, Alain
Marquez, Patricia
Othman, Rozhan
Overlaet, Bert
Panagiotopoulou, Penny
Peltzer, Karl
Perez-Florizno, Lorena R.
Ponomarenko, Larisa
Realo, Anu
Schei, Vidar
Schmitt, Manfred
Smith, Peter B.
Soomro, Nazar
Szabo, Erna
Taveesin, Nalinee
Toyama, Midori
Vliert, Evert van de
Vohra, Naharika
Ward, Colleen
Yamaguchi, Susumu
KeywordsCultural diversity
Social norms
Issue date27-May-2011
PublisherAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science
Abstract(s)With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change.
Publisher version10.1126/science.1197754
AccessRestricted access (UMinho)
Appears in Collections:CECS - Artigos em revistas internacionais / Articles in international journals

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Gelfand et al (2011) Science.pdf
  Restricted access
Documento principal386,25 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Partilhe no FacebookPartilhe no TwitterPartilhe no DeliciousPartilhe no LinkedInPartilhe no DiggAdicionar ao Google BookmarksPartilhe no MySpacePartilhe no Orkut
Exporte no formato BibTex mendeley Exporte no formato Endnote Adicione ao seu ORCID